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RMl 




ILl 9 



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FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE 



AET AlB SCIMCE «^ 6AEME3ST CHTTIIG, 



FOR ALL THE 



viiii^iis i^oMMSoFTii vmm MQi 



H i\( W) 



BY 



A^XJG^XJSTXJS KOCH. 

iLLUSirr^ATED BY 

'r W E L V E 

PLATES OF FINELY ENGRAYED DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES, 

WITH FULL INSTRi:CTIONS FOR DRAFTING THE VARIOUS STYLES OF COATS, 

AND VESTS. 



POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 
18 8 3. 





n^ 



V - 






Ill «f 








r] a 
li 



A 



FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE 



AET MB SCIEIGE «p fiAllillT CIITTII6, 



FOR ALL 



Tl]e Yarious Forms of tl]e ^umai] Body. 



BY 



^TJGMJSTXJS KOCH, 



ILLUSTI^AIIIED BY 

FIFTEEN 

PLATES OF FINELY ENGRAYED DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES, 






WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR DRAFTING THE VARIOUS STYLES OF COATS, 

VESTS AND PANTS. 



POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y 

18 8 3. 



Entered according to Act of Congress in the yeaF 1883, by 

alTtUstus Kocn, 

In tlie office of the Librarian of Congress at Wasiiington, D. C. 



' ']^W rii ^)Mt», 



Tins IMPOVED voLUMF,, wliicli is introduced by 
these few lines, is in reality tlie Second Edition 
of tlje Author" s celebrated System pulished in 
1876, then entitled " The Cutters'' Centennial 
Guide," which is so extensively and successfully 
used in almost every State of the Union. 

This Volume, therefore, is intended to unfold 
the NEW DiscovEKiES and improvements since 
then made, in as finely illustrated fashion as the 
subject will permit or the Author can present it. 

That a new departure and radical changes are 
disseminated in the professional Art of Cutting, 
need not be argued at this time, for the present 
work will bear the scrutinizing eye of the candid 
artist, who will find unfolded to his untiring 
vision the most scientific Peoblem ever devel- 
oped by any author of systems of Garment Cut- 
ting. 

In this Volume will be found the grand com- 
bination of the two great principles upon which 
true Garment Cutting is founded, which are 
Simplification and Accuracy ; and the ground 
PLAN underlying these principles comprises Ac- 
tual Measurement and Direct Application 
of the measures to the Draft as taken from the 
Body. 

The wonderful invention by the Author of the 

ONE GRAND NEW MEASURE Called " SllOUldcr 

Regulator," and its direct application to the 
draft as taken from the Body — in connection with 
tJiree other measures (Front, Back and Waist 



Balance,) which are all taken from one iwint, 
— never fail, if correctly taken, to produce a 
well-fitting garment, and accomplish the good 
result for all the various forms of the human 
body. 

The Work is original in all the general details 
introduced, both in the Description given, and in 
the accomiianying fifteen Plates of Illustration. 

The two Figures show the different points 
and application of the tape-measure ; the Dia- 
grams the drafting ; and the Description ex- 
plains the whole in a clear and thorough man- 
ner, so that any Cutter of ordinary talent can 
use the System at once, and with full success. 

And, furthermore, the young man who does 
not understand Cutting at all, can learn it easily 
from the instruction given in the book, without 
a personal instructor or teacher. 

The Author claims that he has brought out and 
developed, in condensed form, a true and re- 
liable WORK ON Garment Cutting, — as only 
STUDY' and experience can offer and produce. 

In conclusion, the Author advises all those 
who intend to study and jjractice these new 
principles to lay aside all prejudice and follow 
out the instruction as herein given ; and if you 
thus do, COMPLETE SUCCESS will foUow, and you 
will become a hearty indorser of this valuable 
Work. 



G^ivifJTrioN. 



To all nhoin it may concern : Notice is hereby given to all persons in whose hands 
a copy of this work may be placed, that the publisher is the sole proprietor and vender, according 
to the laws of the United States of America ; and any person or persons who attempt to publish, or 
have it published, in whole or in part, or teach others from the illustrations and instructions 
herein contained, will hold themselves liable to heavy penalties. And, further, it is understood 
that this work is not transferable to a third party without a written consent from the publisher, 
which consent will be attached to the work so transferred ; [and for any violation thereof, proceed^ 
ings will be commenced at once against all such offenders. 



THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 



F^Fi^aa^ia^i!^ HiKa^s 



IX KEGAED TO 



Measurement and Position of the Customer. 



]T[HE Measurement of Gakmejs'ts is a subject 
-A- wliicli brings before us an extensive sphere 
of imi^ortant matters on which a large volume 
might be written ; but it is not my intention to 
do so. The only desii-e that I have is, to impress 
the important subject, which is so worthy of 
study and consideration, on the mind of the Cut- 
ter who may use this System. I do not mean by 
this (or even attempt to do so,) to instruct the 
skilful Artist who has had many years of practi- 
cal experience in tlie profession of Cutting, — he 
knows all this. It is, therefore, not this class of 
men which I try to instruct, but it is the young, 
inexperienced Cutter for whom the subject is in- 
tended. 

We find many things in regard to measure- 
taking, which the Cutter may look upon as very 
triiling matters, — but nothing in relation to mea- 
surement is so trifling and insignificant as not to 
need full explanation. 

We will now begin, and show some of these 
trifling things, but which are sufficient to produce 
misfits and alterations whereby hundreds of dol- 
lars may be lost every year. 

The first one which we will mention is, talk- 
ing to the customer while tou are taking 

HIS measures. 

Let it be understood between you and your em- 
ployer, or whosoever takes down the measures, 
not to talk to the customer (if it can be avoided) 
while you are taking his measures. Nothing is 
more annoying to the Cutter and injurious to his 
work than this trifling matter. Now, should you 
want my reason for this, I will simply state : — 
when talking is going on, the customer will twist 
and move about, and consequently will get out of 
his natural position. 

The second hint is : that every Cutter, no mat- 
ter what system he may have, or use, should 
have his regular fixed points on the body, from 
which the tape measure has to be applied ; and 
so long as these points are correct once, and hold 
good in all cases and forms of the body, and the 
measures from those points will produce the cor- 
rect draft, he should stick close to them, and not 
jump from one experiment to anotlier. We find 
many Cutters who are like grasshoppers, jump- 
ing from one point to another — experimenting 
in a different measurement for every coat — and 
are never successful in cutting. 



The third practical hint is : We should take 
all the principal measures which are necessary 
to produce a correct draft for the form of body 
— but beyond this, all the proof or check mea- 
sures should be avoided. Those measures will 
do more harm than good to the Cutter. 

Fourth : All the necessary measures should l)e 
taken without instrument, and with tape only. 

It is a well known fact, that there are systems 
of garment cutting wherein an almost endless a- 
mount of measures have to be taken, and to pro- 
duce them the Cutter must use a measuring 
square or MEASURING MACHINE in wMch the cus- 
tomer is placed, like a horse in harness. Now, 
this is not alone the most disagreeable thing for 
customer and Cutter, but it is also the loorst 
thing ever invented, because more blunders are 
made with this class of instruments tlian we can 
imagine. 

The fifth practical hint is: That all these 
measures which may be necessary for any one 
system should be taken correctly and with utmost 
care, so that they will give the actual amount 
which the body calls for ; and in not doing so, 
we find the cause why some cutters will get in 
trouble more or less, and then discard their Sys- 
tem and fly to a new one. Now this is a great 
mistake : — failure and trouble must occur Avitli 
the best System, if a careless measurement is 
taken. 

It stands to reason that, should we make an 
error in the measurement, it is certain that the 
same error will be made in the draft. And, again, 
if we can expect a good fitting garment at all, it 
necessarily is because we have the correct mea- 
sure by which the good fitting garment is pro- 
duced. This is appliable to any one System 
which the Cutter may use. 

Sixth. To accomplish the good result, and to 
secure a correct measurement, — The only safe and 
sure plan is, that all the measures should be taken 
over the Vest. No doubt some Cutters will say, 
' this is a very difficult matter to do.' Now every 
Cutter of experience must confess, that when the 
measures have to be taken over a bad-fitting Coat, 
it is the most difficult work that a cutter can un- 
dertake. If this is true, why, then, should the 
measures taken over the Vest be more difficult 
than otherwise? It is certainly as easy, if not 
more so, as any other plan in existence. 



THE CUTTER AX I) GUIDE. 



The measurement over the Vest has certain ad- 
vantages. Take, for instance, the Coat whicli is 
more or less wadded, yes, some, we must say, are 
stuffed out with wadding,— now, then, is it possi- 
ble for any one to ascertain the real amount 
which the Body actually calls for '. while, on the 
other hand, by taking the measures over the 
Vest, nothing will interfere, and we will have 
just so much — no more, no less. 

Again : Supposing the customer is one-sided, 
one shoulder lower than the other— it will not be 
noticed when the coat is on, because the shoulder 
is raised up with wadding so that it will appear 
level with the other. Now, if the customer does 
not caution the Cutter, he will discover the error 
when the garment is finished, and by the altera- 
tions which must follow ; while, by taking the 
measures over the Vest, we liave the whole form 
before us, and nothing will hide its defects from 
notice. These few remarks we deem sufficient 
to show the advantages of measuring without 
Squake and Coat. 

But there is another very important point that 
we must impress upon the mind of every Cutter, 
which is of like importance as the measurement 
itself, if not more so,— and this is: Before we 
can expect a correct measurement at all, it is ab- 
solutely necessary tliat the customer must stand 
in his 



NATURAL POSITION. 

\V(" can say from experience, tliat in a majority 
of cases, where customers come to the Cutter to 
have their measures taken, we will find "very few 
stooping or disj^roportioned men ; even the most 
stooping forms will stand straight, or nearly so. 
Now, should we establish our points and apply 
the tape measure to the form in such an unnatu- 
ral position, it is impossible that the garment 
would fit when they stand in their natural shape. 
The question may arise, how do we know if the 
customer is in his natural position? andif so, hoAv 
can we avoid it ? My ansAver to this question is, 
Take a "quiet survey" of yoiir customer as he 
enters your cutting room, and as he is looking at 
the fashion plate, or in any other way opportu- 
nity may offer ; and by doing so, you can judge 
very nearly of the figure you may have to clothe. 
Now, should he present himself to you in any 
other form when you are ready to establisli the 
points and take the measure, then talk to him 
and attract his attention to some other things, 
and you will soon find that he has come to terms 
— will show, perhaps, his round shoulders, and 
stand in his usual jiosition. 

Supposing, now, that this be the case, we then 
goon and mark our Points, as illustrated by Fio- 
ti:e 1 and Figi'ke 2. 



D 



LATE 



Illustration of Points and Measurement, 
Figure 1 and Figure 2. 



p^x THIS System we have only one point that 
m requires the plumb line, and this point we 
find by Eye measure. But as we desire that the 
location of this point sliaJl be fully understood 
by all who may use this Systinii, we will explain 
it with a ruler to the new Ijeginiu'r : 

Bring the Vest smoothly down to the body at 
the waist, and fasten it to the pants with a pin so 
it will stay in its place. Now take a short ruler, 
place it against the right front arm, let it r\in 
down in a plumb line, and di-aw a chalk maik at 
I), or waist, on the same side of ruler that rests 
on arm. Having this line, then draw a chalk 
mark crossways above the hip-boiic, in tlic most 
hollow i)art of the body, so that tiiese two marks 
will show thus -f , and we have point I), Fig- 
ure 2. 

Now make a maik Ifugthways iti centre of 
back, at neck, as at A, Fig. t. Then make a 
mark cro.ssways, at a point where the toj) of back 



shall join the collar, (say one inch below the top 
or crease of collar,) so that these marks will show 
thus +, and we have point A, Figure 1. 

Tiien make a clialk mark lengthways in centre 
of back, as at K, thence crossing at a i:)oint 
about one-third of top and bottom of arm, from 
bottom of arm up, and we have the point K, 
Fig. 1. It is a good plan, when the waist length 
is taken from A to B, to note the exact amount 
from A to K. 

Next, make a mark in centre of back at waist, 
and we have point E, Figure ]. 

Tliese four P( ints which we have now estab- 
lished will produce the Balance of the Coat, and 
thei'efore the Cuttei- should locate them with the 
greatest care. 

Having located those I'oints, we then go on to 
show 

THE MEASl REPEAT. 
Bring the tape on + A, Fig. 1: measure to K, (say 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



6i inches); let it nm down to B, for full length of 
waist, (say 18f inches), thence to C, full length of 
coat (say 38 inches). These three measures may 
be taken before your customer has laid off his 
coat ; and those not experienced in measuring 
over the vest may adopt that plan at the begin- 
ning, and thus make a gradual change if they 
deem it advisable to do so. 

Now place the tape measure on -|-, A,'_.Fig. 1, 
and measure from that jjoint, as follows : 

From A, down in back in a direct line to -|- I), 
Fig. 2, as line P, Fig. 1 indicates, (say \^\ inches), 
and we have the Back Balance measure. Bring the 
tape over the front shoulder, and measure from A, 
down in front of arm to -|-l),Fig.2,(say 20^ inches), 
and we have the Front Balance. Extend the tape 
measure to I, or hand, for full length of sleeve, 
(say 31i inches). 

Note : The measure for sleeve length may be 
taken in another form, as follows : Raise the arm 
in horizontal line with the body, have the elbow 
slightly bent. Then measure from centre of 
back to elbow, (say 20 inches), then to the hand, 
full length of sleeve, (say 32^ inches). We leave 
this for the Cutter to decide which measure he 
will adopt. 

Having the tape measure yet in fiont of arm as 
before stated, then measure from A, down in front 
of the arm, bring the tape around under the arm 
in a close-litting manner, (close, but not tight), 
then up to the starting jioint A, as indicated by 
line Gr, Figures 1 and 2, (say 264^ irrches"), and we 
have the Arm-depth measure. 

Now, let the tape measure rest in that position 
in front and under the arm, and bring the tape 
down on back to point K, as shown by Figure 1, 
(say 23i inches), and we have the Slioulder mea- 
sure. 

The Cutter will see l)y this, tliat all the above 
measures are taken from Point A, top of back, 
where the end of the tape is held with the left 
hand, and with the right hand we apply the 
tape to the different points. 

Now luring tlie tape measure down on + I), 



Fig, 2, and measure to E, centre of back, as 
shown on Fig. 1, (say7i inches), and we have the 
Back Waist measure. Let the tape measure rest 
on -\- T), Fig. 2, bi'ing the tape up in back of 
arm to top of shoulder, as shown by line H, Fig. 
1 and 2, and then across the acromian process, 
or, in other words, one inch from the extreme 
end of shoulder point, in a smootli-fitting man- 
ner, then down in front of arm to the starting 
point -|- D, (say 31 inches), and we have the 
grand ritio measure called 

THE SHOriiDER RECil LATOR. 

Notj: : Before taking this measure, see that 
your customer's shoulder is down in natural po- 
sition, not raised or drawn back. Again, draw 
your measure close, but not tight, and shoiild 
correspond in closeness to Front and Back Bal- 
ance. 

Next apply the tape for Breast Measure, as 
shown by L, Figures 1 and 2. Bring the tape 
measure close up under the arms, then across the 
shoulder blades, and back again to the starting 
point, (say 36 inches). This measure should be 
taken quite snug, so that we may have the actual 
size of Breast. 

The next and last measure we now take is 
the Waist Measure, as shown by line M, Fig. 2. 
Bring the tape around the waist where the body 
is the smallest, and note the amount, (say 32 
inches). 

This completes the measurement, summed up 
as follows : 

6^ inches Point of shoulder measure. 

18f "■ Full length of waist measure. 

38 " Full length of coat. 

19|- ■ " Back balance measure. 

20| " Front balance 

31^ '" Sleeve length 

26i " Arm depth 

23i '• Shoulder 
7i •' Back waist " 

31 " Shoulder Regulator measure. 
36 " Breast measure. 

32 " Waist '• 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



THE COAT SYSTEM. 



Plate 



1 



Diagram A. 
HOWING THE SrAFT OF A ©OUBLE-IrEASTED Jf ROCK loAT. 



Draw a line in centre ol' l)ack as from O to (). 
Square out at riglit anule from A to Y. ]k)lli 
of these lines are tlie oonstruction lines from 
which we ajtply tlie ineasure to complete the 
draft. 

The next point which we must now establish is 
line B, or front of arm scye, and this we do by 
the slionlder oneafnire, which calls for 23i inches 
in the measurement. 

Take this measure, divide it in two equal parts, 
and apply one-lialf, (llf inches), from A to B, 
and the correct point for the fi'ont of arm scye is 
established. (This point will lie more fully ex- 
plained below.) JSTow, square u]) from B to D, — 
which we will call line B. 

Next in order is the Front Balance measure, 
wdiich calls for 20^ inches. Take the amount and 
apply it from B to D. Square out to K, and the 
front length of the coat is established. 

Then apply the f3ack AVaist measui'e, 7^ inches, 
from A to E, and make a mark. 

Having- this, then draw a short line from B to 
F, which is in the direction to top of back. Now 
locate point F. Measure the distance from E to 
B, (4^ inches), divide this in six equal jiarts, and 
apply one part ({^ inches) from B toF. This one- 
sixth may be readily found as follows : if you 
have a division square, then measure the distance 
from E to B, with the division of 4ths, and what- 
ever the number may be in this (No. 17 in this 
case), take the same number in the division of 
24tlis, and yciu \\ill ]ia\e the one-sixtli from B 
to F. 

Next in order is the Back i'alancc mcnsiirc 
Take this measure IDi inches, add one seam, and 
apply the amount fidiii F to II, and we Imve the 
correct length of back. Sipiare out fiom II to T. 
Having this, then locate ])oiiit K. Take the 
amount from A to 13, divide it in four ])arfs, 
and api)ly one-fourth, {21 inciies), fiom T) to K, 
and make a mark. 

Now proceed to locate line L. or bottom of arm 
scye. Take the aiiu ch^pth measure "JC)] inches, 
and ajiply one jialf of this measure [\'.\\ inches) 



from K to 8, and make a sweep line with yovir 
left thundj-nail. Then apply the same amount 
(13^ inches) from H to 3, and make a sweep line 
also, as shown in Diagram. Now place the 
s(piare on line ; let long arm of square rest 
on cros^;ing of sweep lines at 3, and in that posi- 
tion draw a line from L, through sweep to V, in 
front, and we have the bottcmi of arm scye. 

Having this, then we establish point J, and by 
this we find line C. 

Take one-third of A and B, (3J inches), and 
bring this from line B to J. Having this point, 
then api)ly f inch in all cases and sizes from J to 
C, and square line G up to & 

Now take one-half of B and C, (2^ inches), add 
one seam, and bring the amount from H to I — also 
from D to G. Square out from G to U. 

Next in order is line P, or point of back sleeve 
seam — place the ruler on crossing of B and L lines, 
let it rest on H, top of back, aard make a mark on 
line C, as at N. NcJw place the square on centre 
of back, and square out from P through N to M. 

Then mark width of back as at 1 and 2, (say | 
inch on each side of line P,) or any width ac- 
cording to fancjr or fashion, and draw line 1 and 
2— mark out from 2, for pitch of back, say f inch 
more or less, according to the fashion of the 
day. 

Next a[)])ly the measure for length of waist 
from H to W, 18f inches. Square out from W 
to X. Mark up from I, f inch for spring of back. 

Having all these points, we are now prepared 
to tinish tile Back. Shape the centre line of back 
fiom L to AV. Mark width of back as from A to 
4. Tlien comnience and shape the back: draw a 
line from II to maik above I, from I to 2, from 
2 to ], and from i down through 4 to bottom, ac- 
coi'ding to fancy or fashion, and as shown in Di- 
agram A. 

Now locate })oint Q. I)ivi(h' tlie distance from 
L to P in four (>qual parts, antl bring one part 
from line L up to Q, which gives us the point for 
front of slee\-e seam. Next place the tape on 
point of side body as at 1, and make a sweep line 




PLATE II 




--1^ - 



See Dia0r G Plate Vll 

3 





1 





PLATE, III. 




^^\ 






THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



9 



from bottom of inside seam of Ixick out to G, 
which line will give the length of side body. 
Place the rnler on i3oiut K and M, and draw a 
a line. Now locate point R. Measure the dis- 
tance from line B to C, (4f inches), divide this in 
three equal parts, and apply one-third, (If inch- 
es), from B to R, and we have the correct j)oint 
from which we apply the grand new measure 
called 

" The Shoulder Re!;ulator." 

This we hud calls for 31 inclies in the measure- 
ment. Now take the tape, place it on R, let it 
run ui) in a direct line to top of back shoulder 
seam at line C, (say 14^ inches,) bring the 
amount, whatever it may be, on R, and apply 
full length of measure, 31 inches, in a direct line 
up to S, and make a sweep line out from this 
point, as shown in Diagram, and we have the cor- 
rect point by which we draw our line for front 
shoulder seam. 

Now I must draw your attention to the i-emark 
which I have made when points 1 and 2 were loca- 



ted, as follows: "Mark width of back (say f 
inch) on each side of line P, or any width accord- 
ing to fancy or fashion. ' ' No doubt to the practi- 
cal Cutter this point is now clear why we have 
given the liberty of drawing the back shoulder 
seam higher, or lower, than f inch. Supposing 
we would mark line 2, one inch further up than 
in Diagram and as above stated, then dra*' our 
back shoulder seam by this line : Now apply 
your Shoulder Regulator measure from R, to top 
of shoulder at line C, and we have just the same 
amount more which we have marked up for line 
2. Now place the amount on R, mark off 31 
inches, up to S, and we find this point is just the 
same amount lower down ; and so vice versa. 
Therefore we say to the Cutter, suit yourself in 
regard to the shoulder drop of back, and have 
this point according to your taste or fancy, and 
the Slioulder Regulator measure will establish 
point S, accordingly. 

Having made this statement, we are I'eady to 
cut out the Back, and by doing so proceed and 
take lip — 



Plate 



Diagram B. 



In which we find the necessary instruction to 
finish the Draft. 

First, proceed and hnisli the front Shoulder. 
Take the back, bring it on top of front shoulder, 
let H rest on K and fasten the back at this point 
with a pin. Having done so, then shove the back 
in so that top of back will rest on K M line, and 
point 2, pitch of back, will be f inch above sweep 
line S ; and in that position draw a line liy back 
shoulder seam from K M line U) * centre of 
shoulder. Now place the pin at ■• and shove the 
back down so it will rest on sweep line S. Draw 
a line from * to pitch of back. Having this, let 
tlie l)ack remain in that position and shape the 
upi)er arm scye by back pitch down to Q to 3. 
Now take the back off and shape the shoulder of 
front part, from arm scye to * and from that 
point out to K M line, as shown in Diagram A. 

Next proceed and linish the side body and 
waist. Bring the back to point of side body, let 
line 1, front and liack meet, and fasten the back 
at this point with a pin. Having done so, then 
the next thing must be to find the correct round- 
ing of side body from 1 to line L, which will lie 
in harmony with the form of body for which the 
draft is made. Now to accomplish this to our en- 
tire satisfaction, we must apply the shoulder 
measure, which is the only true guide in this im- 



portant matter. Make a mark in centre of back 
6 J inches below H, for point of shoulder measure. 
(See measurement. ) 

Then take the Shoulder measure, which calls for 
23J inches, add f inch for seams in all cases, and 
apply the full amount, (24^ inches in this draft), 
as follows : — From K to Q, then around the 
front arm scye, in a smooth-fitting manner, to 3, 
and from 3 in a direct line to centre seam of back 
and mai'k made by 6^ inches ; shove the back in 
at bottom until this measure will rest on or meet 
this i^oint ; and when so, then draw a line from 
1 to line L, alongside of the back, and we have 
the correct rounding for the form of the body. 
Now let the back remain in that position, and 
shape the arm scye from 1 to 3, as shown in Dia- 
gram. 

Having this, then place the pin close to the 
edge of inside line of back at L, and shove the 
back in below. Now take the Back Waist mea- 
sui'e, add 1\ inch in all cases to the measure, and 
bring the amount (8| inches in this case) from B 
to A, or centre of back, as shown in Diagram ; 
and in that position, draw a line from L to bottom 
of back, as shown by dotted line. Having this, 
then finish the side body by these lines : give a 
little more i-ounding at top, from 1 to L, and be- 
low L, hollow the side body a trifle to A line, 



10 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



and from there pive tlie neeessary sijring to 0, 
wliateA^er the foi'in may need, as sliovvn in Dia- 
grams B and A. 

Next, finisli the Waist j^art. Draw a line 
for width of side body, according to fancy or 
fashion, as from line L, to 7, tf) 9. Now we liave 
given 1\ inch more than back waisl measiire from 
B to A, — I inch of which is necessary for seams; 
the other half inch we takeout between side body 
and front part, as from 7 to S. Having this, then 
draw a corresponding line from L, througli 8, to 
bottom. Next establish the bottom line of side 
body. Bring the angle of s(|nare on 0, Diag. A ; 
let long arm of square rest on H, top of back, 
and draw a line from to 9, and by this shape 
the bottom line of side body. 

The next thing must be to apply the Breast 
measure. Close the back to side body, as in Dia- 
gram B. Measure out from L to T, one-half 
breast measure,18 inches— from T to V, 2* inches 
in all sizes. Square up from T to U. From U, 
draw a line to V. From U to Z, mark ^ inch 
more tlian one-sixth of breast, 3^ inches— from 
G to Z 2, (Diagram A), one-half the amount, 
If inches— and draw a line l)y these points, for 
depth of neck. Now place the back on toj) of 
shoulder point, as in Diagram B, and hnish the 
neck gorge as in Diagram. 

Next to this we apply the AVaist Meas- 
ure. You will remember that we have applied 
the back waist measure from B to A. Now bring 
the amount 7^ inches on line B, mark out to 
front, one-lialf waist, 10 inches, and allow one- 
half incli, or even one inch more for making uj), 
and we have point Y. Note :— The allowance at 
this i^oint depends entirely on the material, and 
also on the ease which the customer wishes. 

Now commence and finish the front. Draw a 
line from neck point to V, from V through Y to 
bottom. Then draw the bottom line; ccmimence 
one seam below the side body at 9, and stiike 
X in front, and as shown in Dia^■ram. 



Next finish the lapel. Draw a line from X to 
top — extend A and L line out. Mark width at 
toja (say 2\ inches), or fashion — at line L, (say 2f 
inches) at A line, (say 2i inches) — at bottom, (say 
2 inches), finish the top according to the fashion 
of the day. Now proceed and draw the front 
line from top to bottom, and finish all the rest, as 
shown in Diagram A and B, and the draft for a 
double breasted coat is finished. 

But here I will say, In case the Cutter should 
be in doubt that he may not have applied the 
Shonlder Measure for the rounding of side body 
as it ought to be, and according to the explana- 
tion herein given, then he may i^rove its correct- 
ness by the Back Balance measure, as follows : 
Mark up from B, to * at F, (Diagram B), the 
same amount as w-e have taken out from 7 to 8, 
or i inch ; and from tliis apply the Back Balance, 
19^ inches, uj) to H, and make a sweep line, as 
shown in Diagram B. Now, if the top of back 
will rest on this sweep line when brought in a 
joining i)Osition with side body, as in Diagram, 
then the application of the Shoulder Measure is 
correct. 

Now, as we have finished the draft, and are 
ready to cut the pattern out, let lis take the fol- 
loAving measures from the draft wdiile it is whole, 
and therefore it is more convenient to do so. 

First: Close the back and front shoulder at 
line S, as in Diagram B. Now, measure from N, 
or P line, around the upper arm scye to Q in 
front, in a close-fitting manner, and we will find 
9 inches in this draft. Note the amount down. 

Next : ]\Ieasure from Q around the lower arm 
scye up to N, in back, (say 7f inches). Note the 
amount down. 

Then bring the tape on K, and measure to Q, 
(say llf inches). Note tliis down also. 

These three measures we will need when the 
draft of Sleeve is made, which we find in Plate 
YI, Diagrams E and F. 

Having these three measures, then cut the pat- 
tern out. 



HE 



I 
JrAFT of a flNGLE §REASTED foAT. 

state to (lie Nouiiu', inox- foi.t.owkd nv tiik. r 



I (li'cni it neccssaiy to state to (lie young, mex- | followjod by the cutteh. 

pei'ienced Cuttei-, that the Single P.reasted Coat [ Vuv a coat which shall roll down to the 2d but- 

is drafted in the same niannei' as the Double j ton at waist, and which is intended to button xip 

Breast<'il. willioul any cliaug.' wliati'vcr, except below,— We mark out from V (say 1^ inches) and 

whi'iv a certain aiuouul has to be at Y (say 1 inch) more or les.s, according to the 



the front, whi'iv a certain 
brought out from A' and Y. 

Now, in regard to the amouiil which is needed, 
no fixed quantity can be given, ami must be made 
according to the style oC fi-ont. We will there- 
fore give a guide onlv, which mav lie 



ease want(>d by the ciistomer. 

.\ coat with a short roll, and intended to but- 
ton \\\) vfiy high, — One inch is sufficient from V 
out ; and lielow this point the style and fashion 
will i-eiiuhite it. 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



11 



Mesiiarksi on the above Draff. 

The Draft of Diagrams A and B is now finisli- 
'^d and thorouglily exj^Iained. Therefore, I deem 
it my dnty to state, that by this single draft 
the Cutter has (with only one exception, my 
whole System of the Coat Body. No mat- 
ter what shape or form he may have to deal 
with, or for which he may be called upon to pro- 



vide a covering, the principal part of drafting is 
for all alike. 

This one exception is, as we have alluded to 
in the commencement of the draft, by applying 
one-half of shoulder measure from A to B, or 
front of arm scye line, and will be fully explain- 
ed on this page, bearing title "The Shoulder 
Measure in connection with Front and Back Bal- 
ance." 



©HE SHOULDEI^ fflEASUI^E, 

IN CONEECTION WITH FRONT AND BACK BALANCE. 



This is a simple but highly important point, 
and all those who intend to study and practice 
this New System should follow tlie instruction as 
herein given : 

Tire Cutter will see at once that the Front and 
BacTc Balances measures will bring the length of 
coat, in front and back ; and, according to the 
length of the Back Balance, the sweep lines at 
3 will change more to the front or to the back. 
(See Diagrams A, C and D.) 

And just in the same manner the Shoulder 
measure must change also, otherwise it will not 
be in harmony with Front and Back Balance 
measures. 

Now this we do in a very easy and simple 
way, Avithout any comxDlication whatever. 

In the regular x>i'oportioned size of coat, (no 
matter what the size of breast may be), the back 
balance is always one inch less than the front 
balance. (See measurement. Diagram A). But 
as long as the back balance does not run below 
this one inch, and also not above the front bal- 
ance, we call it a proportioned size, and apjjly 
one-half of the shoulder measure from A to B, 
for front of arm scye line, as shown in Diagram 
A. 

But as soon as the back balance is more than 
the front balance (as the case will be in stooping- 
forms,) then whatever the amount may be which 
the back balance is more than front, we add the 
amount to one-half of shoulder measure, and 
apply it from A to B, for front of arm scj^e line. 

This is fully illustrated in Diagram C. 

Then we take the reverse side, where the back 
balance runs more than one inch below the front 
balance (as the case will be in erect forms). In 
all such cases we deduct the amount which is 
less than one inch, from the one-half shoulder 
measure, and whatever is left of the one-half 



shoulder we apply from A to B, and draw the 
front of arm scye line by this point. 

To show this more plainly, we suppose the 
front balance will call for 20|- inches — the back 
balance 19 inches. Here we have ^ inch which 
we must deduct from the shoulder measure. 
Supposing now the shoulder measure calls for 
23 inches, one-half of which would be 11^ inches. 
Now deduct the ^ inch from this, and we have 
11 inches, which we apply from A to B. 

This is also illustrated in Diagram D, (see 
measurement)— front balance 23| inches — back 
balance 22 inches. Here we have | inch which 
we must deduct from the shoulder measure. Now 
take one-half shoulder measure, 14^ inches ; de- 
duct f inch from this and we have 13|- inches, 
which we apply fro7n A to B, as sliown in the 
draft of Diagram D. 

This includes all cases, no matter what the dif- 
ference may be between front and back balance, 
and which may exist in one way or the other, 
and by doing so, the front of arm scye line will be 
established according to the form of the body 
which we have measured and di-afted for; and 
the shoulder measure will be brought in liarniony 
with front and back balance. 

Now, should any Cutter wish to know the rea- 
son for so doing, I will state it to him. In the 
first case above mentioned, (stooping), the dis- 
tance from D to bottom of arm scye is less than 
the proportioned size, and consequently the dif- 
ference of shoulder measure is made up from L 
to B, or front of arm scye. 

In the second case, (erect), the distance from D 
to bottom of arm scye is more than the projpor- 
tioned size, and L to B must be Jiist so much less. 

This point B, or front of arm scye line, is of 
great importance in coat cutting, and therefore 
we show its effect more fiillv in the next article. 



12 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



AND THE EFFECT WHICH I« HAS IF NOT PROPERLY LOCATED. 



The proi)er and definite location of B line, or 
front of arm scye, is one of the most important 
points in coat cntting, and therefoiv well wortliy 
of study and consideration. 

AVe can say with safety, and witliont hesita- 
tion, that in nine cases ont of ten which the Cnt- 
ter mnst call misfits, the foundation to these was 
laid (and can be traced back to this point) by 
misplacing B, or front of ai'm scye line. 

To i^rove this, we take the projiortioned size of 
a 36 inch breast, — and in this we have the follow- 
ing measures : From centre of back to front of 
arm scye llf inches, and from this i>oint to cen- 
tre of breast 9 inches. 

Now, take for instance the so called erect fann 
with the same breast measure, 30 inches :— and, 
when measured, we find the distance from centi'e 
of back to front of arm scye, or B line, (say lOf 
inches), and from this point to centre of breast 
10 inches. Nt)W what do these measures say, or 
indicate; It is simply this : Bring B line one 
inch more towards the back than in the propor- 
tioned size, and we have this line according to 
the form of the body, and also the actual amount 
of breast from B to A^, or centre of breast, which 
the form does need. 

This is now one side by which we have shown 
our point. Then take the stooping form, witli 
the same breast measure, 36 inches, — and when 
measiired we find the distance from centre of back 
to front of arm scye (say 12| inches,) and from 
this point to centre of breast (say 8 inches.) (See 
Diagram C.) Now this shows the reverse side 
from the so-called erect form ; and shall we 
meet the recpiirements of the form, B line must 
be drawn one inch further out from the regidar 
propoi'tioned size, and by so doing we have the 
correct width from centi'e of back to fi'ont of arm 
scye, and also the correct width of breast. 

Sujijtosing now, tlie Cutter uses the so-ca)U'd 
Division or lireast Measure System, which places 
f of breast, from centi'e of back to front of arm 
scye, no matter what form the customer may 
have, erect or stoojung, it gives tlie amount for 
each one alike. And what will be the result i 

III the first case aliove statetl, (erect form,") the 



coat will be too full in the back and under the 
arm, while it will be too narrow in front of breast, 
because the fullness in back, or extra amount of 
cloth, which lirings the fullness, is needed in 
front of lu'east. 

In the second case, (stooi^ing form), the coat 
will be too tight in l>ack to front of arm ^cye, 
and too full in front of lireast, — because the full- 
ness in front of breast is needed in back. But in 
this case the Cutter will find more than being 
tight in ])ack. He finds a big wrinkle from centre 
of back below the shoulder blades, extending 
across the side body to front of arm scye, thence 
up to front shoulder point. The aiin scye is too 
snudl. Every movement the customer makes 
shows only too plainly that it is a spoiled gar- 
ment, which can never he made to give entire sat- 
isfaction to the customer, nor to the Cutter. For 
him it is an eyesore, which he will try to get rid of 
if possible ; and therefore, the next thing he will 
do is, he goes to work to cut the front of arm 
scye out and give more room to the wearer. But 
when tlie coat is finished and tried on, he will find 
a worse fit than befoi'e. 

The question may arise, why sliould tliis be aoi 
and we answer : because, when the front of ann 
scye was cut, all the points on toj) of front shoul- 
der were changed also and consequently the 
whole coat is thrown out of balance. It wdll 
make the coat somewhat easier by the operation, 
but it will draw more wrinkles iip in front. Then 
comes wadding in play, and all these points 
where the wrinkles are will be stuffed out, and 
by the time the job is completed a hard day's 
work is done and gone, and the pay for all this 
troulile and laboi' is — a l)ad-litting coat. 

A\'e therefore say, before the Ciitter can expect 
a gootl and easy-fitting coat, it is necessary for 
him to locate front of Arm Scye, or B line, in 
lianiioiiy with the figure for which he is called 
upon to provide a covering. 

In this System we acconqilish the good result 
by applying the Shoulder Measure in harmony 
with Front and Back Balance, in the manner as 
above stated. 



PLATE, IV 




THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



13 



PLATE IV. 



Diagram C. 

SHOWING THE DRAFT FOR THE ROUKI) SHOULDER STRUCTURES. 



In this Diagram we intend to prove onr ar- 
gument in regard to B line, or front of Arm Scye. 
The breast measure is the same as in Diagram A, 
36 inclies — and the slioulder measure only \ inch 
more tlian in the first draft. But, as we will find, 
when the draft is made, tlie distance from A toB 
is 13 inches, which is equal to a 39 inch breast, — 
and from B line to \ , only 8 inclies, eqiuil to a 
32 incli breast. 

Now, all these changes the uieasures will bring 
for themselves, without any guesswork whatever. 



The measurements, we suppose, are as follows : 
7 inches Point of shoulder measure. 

1!) " Waist length. 

20^ " Back Balance. 

19i " Front Balance. 

311 u Sleeve Length. 

27 " Arm depth measure. 

24 " Shoulder measure. 
8:^ '' Back waist measure. 

304^ " Shoulder regulator measure. 

36 ' ' Breast measure. 

34 " Waist measure. 

THE DRAFT. 

Draw line O to — square out from A to Y. 
Take one-half of shoulder measure, 12 inches. 
Now notice front and back balance : Here we 
find one inch more back length than front ; — add 
this 1 inch to one-half of shoulder measure, and 
bring the amount, 13 inches, from A to B. (See 
"The Shoulder Measure in connection with 
Front and Back Balance." ) 

Now sqiuire up from B to D, and we liave the 
front of arm scye line, according to the form of 
the body. 

Mark from B to D, front l)alance, V^\ inches — 
square out from D to K — mark from A to E, back 
Avaist measure, 8i inclies — draw line from B to F 
— measure from E to B, 4| inches ; divide this in 
six equal parts, and bring one-part, f inch, from 
B to F. 

Nowapi)ly back balance, 2();V inches from F to 
H, and make a short sweep out to top of back — 
then mark one-half of the amount, which the 
back balance is more than front balance, (or \ 
inch in this case) from centre line out to H, by 
which we form the top of back, as in Diagram. 

Bring the square on H, and draw a line through 



sweep and mark made by \ inch out to I--mark 
one-fourth of A and B from D to K, 3^ inches. 
Apply one-half of arm depth, 13i inches, from K 
to 3, make a sweep — then the same amount from 
H, top of back, to 3, and make a sweep also. 
Bring square on centre line as at L, let long arm 
rest on crossing of sweep lines at 3, and down a 
line from L, through sweep, to V. Mark one- 
third of A and B, 4| inches, from line B to J— 
from J to C, I inch — square up from C to S. 

Bring ruler on crossing of B and L lines, let it 
rest on top of back at H, and mark for N. Square 
out from P through N to M— draw a line from M 
to K — mark width of back pitch as at 1 and 2 — 
mark from H to I, one-half of B and C, 2* inches 
— the same amount from D to G, and square out 
to U. Mark Q one fourth of L and M. 

Next apply length of waist measure from H to 
W — square out to X — mark in from A, (say \ 
inch), and shape the back line from H, through 
mark, to bottom, as shown in Diagram. Maik 
width of back, from A to 4 — mark | inch above I 
for spring of back. Having all these points, then 
shape the back from H to I — from I to 2 — from 2 
to 1, and from 1 through 4, to bottom of back — 
sweep by 1, from bottom of inside line of back, 
out to 6. 

Now bring one-third of B and C, or 1| inches, 
from B to R. Having this point, then apply 

THE ^HOITLDER RECJlIiATOR. 

Measure from R to top of liack shoulder seam 
at line C (say 141 inches). Bring the amount on 
R, and measure to S, full length of measure, 30|^ 
inches, and make a sweep out from S, as shown 
in Diagram A. Now cut the back out, and tinisli 
the front shoulder, as shown in Diagram B. 

Also shape the upper arm scye to Q, to 3. 

Next, place the back to iioint of side body — • 
fasten it with a pin. Apply the shoulder mea- 
sure from K to Q, then around the front arm scye 
to 3, then to centre of back (7 inches below H), full 
measure, 24 inches, and allow | inch more for 
seams. Now draw a line along side of back from 
1 to line L--bring the pin down to L. Apply 
back waist measure, and \\ inch more, from B to 
A — draw a line from L to bottom of inside seam 
of back, and then shape the side body by these 
lines, as shown in Diagram B. Next draw bot- 
tom line of side body, as before shown— draw a 



14 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



line under the arm for width of side body as at 7 
— from 7 to 8, mark \ inch, which we have allow- 
ed, from B to A, and shape the front i^art through 
8, as shown in Diagram. Ax^ply the breast mea- 
sure from L to T (as Diagram B)— from T to V, 2^ 
inches. Square up from T to U — from U to Z, 
one-sixth of breast and \ inch more — G to Z2, 
one-half the amount — draw a line by these points 
— also from U to V. Shape the neck gorge. 

Next apply the waist measure — bi'ing the back 
waist measure, %\ inches, on B, and mark oiit 
one-half waist, 17 inches, and allow i inch for 
making up. Having this, then shape the front 



line for a Double Breasted Coat. Also draw bot- 
tom line of front part, and linish all the rest as 
shown in Diagram. 

Measure upper arm v~v\i' from N to Q — then 
from Q, around the lower arm scye to N — aTso 
from K. to Q. and note the amount for draft of 
sleeve. 

The Diagram also shows the Single Breasted 
Cutaway Coat, to button iip high. Measure out 
from V one inch — at top \\ inches — and shape 
the front down by these points. 

The explanation of Skirt will be found on Plate 
YII.— Diaurani 11. 



PLATE V. 

Diagram D. 

SHOWING THE DRAFT FOR A CORPULENT FIGURE. 



The reason for giving this large size of Diagram 
is, first, to show how easy it is to draft a pattern 
for this class of men by this System ; and, sec- 
ond, to show the application of the Shonlder 
Measure in reverse to Diagram C. 

The measurement will show, that we have the 
so-called "erect" form of the human body be- 
fore us — and wdien the draft is finished it will 
show that the length of back, from L to H, is If inch 
less than the regular size of breast measure — from 
centre of back to front of arm scye If inch less 
than the regular size of breast, or, in other 
words, for a l)reast measure of 41 inches — and 
consequently the distance from front of arm scye 
to A" is just the same amount more. 

The measure we suppose as follows : 

7| inches Point of shouldci' measure. 

21 " Waist length •' 

22 " Back balance " 
28J " Front balance " 
:30 " Sleeve length 

8;} ' ' Arm depth ' ' 

28i " Shoulder " 

9 '' Back waist " 

'f>\\ " Shoulder regulaoi' " 

46 " Breast 

50 " AVaist 

Tin: DKAIT. 

Draw line () Id (). Squni-c out IVdui .\ to V. 
Take one-half of slioulder measure, I-lj inches. 
Now noti(^e front and back balance : Here we 
lind the back balance 1| inch less than front 
balance, and consequently we have | inch, which 
we must deduct from one-half shoulder measure 



— deduct this, and it gives us 13.|^ inches, which 
we apply from A to B, and the front of arm scye 
l^oint is established. Now square up from B — 
mark B to D, front balance, 23f inches — square 
out to K — A to E, back Avaist, 9 inches — divide 
the distance from E to B in six parts, and bring 
one-sixth, f inch, from B to F — F to H, back 
balance, 22 inches, add one seam. Square out to 
I. Bring one-fourth of A and B from D to K, 
3f inches. Now apply one-half of arm depth 
measure, 16J inches, from K to 3, and make a 
sweep line — then the same amount from H to 3, and 
make a sweep also. Place the square on centre 
of back and draw a line from L, through sweep 
at 3, to A", in front. Now bring one-third of A 
and B, from B line to J, A\ inches — from J to C 
f inch, and square up to S. Bring the ruler on 
crossing of B L lines ; let it rest on H, and mark 
N — square out from P, through N to M — draw a 
line from M to K — H to I one-half of B and C — 
the same amount fi'om D to G — square out to U 
— mark width of back as 1 and 2. Then apply 
waist length fnnii 11 to AV — square oiit to X. 
Finish the centre line of back from H to AA"" — ■ 
mark width from A to 4 — give f inch above I, 
for spring of back. Now commence and shape 
the back from H to I — from I to 2—2 to 1, and 
from 1 down through 4, to bottom. Bring the 
tape on I, and sweep out to 6. Take one-third 
of B and C, J.^ inches, and. l)ring this from B to 
R— apply 

Tin: SII01LI>I:K KEt^lIiATOR. 

l^'roMi R to top of back shoulder seam at lineO, 
(say \h\ inches), bring the amount, whatever it 
may l)e, on R, and then full measure, 34i inches, 



PLATE, V 





PLATE VI 




if K 







THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 



15 



up to S, and make a sweep, as shown in Diagram. 
Now exit the back out. 

Next, finish the front shoulder as in Diagram B. 
Also draw upijerarm scye to Q, to 3. Then bring 
the back on side body ; let line 1 meet ; place a 
pin at this point. Now apply the shoulder mea- 
sure from K to Q, then around the front arm scye 
to 3, and then to centre line of back, (7| inches 
below H), full measure, 28| inches, and allowed f 
inch more for seams. Then draw a line from 1 to 
L ; place the pin at L, shove the back in on bot- 
tom — mark in from B, 1^ inch more than back 
waist measure, lOJ inches, to A, and draw a line 
from L to bottom of back. Now finish the side 
body as shoAvn in Diagram B — draw bottom line 
from 6 to 9, — also side body line through 7 — from 
7 to 8, ^ inch, and draw a line from L, through 8 
to bottom. Next apply the breast measure from 



L, (as in Diagram B) to T — from T to V, 2^ inches 
— square up from T to U — from II to * the differ- 
ence between breast and waist measure, 2 inches, 
and from this point draw a line to V — U to Z, 
one-sixth of breast and ^ inch more — G to Z 2, 
one-half of the amount, and draw line out by 
these marks. Next api^ly the waist measiire 
bring back waist, 9 inches, on B, and mark out 
to Y, one-half waist, 25 inches. 

Now commence and shape the neck gorge — then 
draw a line from neck point down to V to Y, to 
X, as shown in Diagram. Then from bottom of 
side body out to front, for bottom line of front 
part, and all the rest as shown in Diagram A and 
B, and the draft is finished. 

(Draft of Collar, see Explanation, 
page 18). 



THE SLEEVE SYSTEM, 

Plate VI, 



Before we show the draft of Sleeve, I must re- 
mind the Cutter of these three measures which we 
have taken from the j^attern of Diagram B. 

The first one is the Upper Arm Scye, as from 
N to Q, 9 inches — the second one is the Lower 
Arm Scye, as from Q to N, 7| inches — the third 
one is from K to Q, llf inches. 

Now, as these measures are directly applied to 
the draft of Sleeve, it is therefore very important 
that they should be taken Avith utmost care, and 
as nearly as possil)le correct. 

DIAGISAM E. 

Draw a line from A to O, — square out to 11. 
Now take the back of Diagram A and mark the 
distance of L and P lines (3^ inches) from A to 
B. Square out from B to D. Now take the up- 
l^er arm scye measure, 9 inches, and bring the 
amount in a direct line from A to D, and make a 
mark. 

Place the angle of square on D, let arm of 
square rest on B, and draw a line down to L, and 
we have the width of upper sleeve. Now take 
the pattern of Diagram A, measure the distance 
in front of arm scye from line L to Q, (f inch) and 
bring this from B to C — draw a line from C to D. 
Divide the upper arm scye measure in three equal 
parts, and apply one-third, (3 inches) from B to 
E. Place angle of square on E, let arm of square 
rest on C, and draw a line up to P, and we have 



now the cori'ect point which will bring the light 
length of sleeve head. 

Now place the tape on F, make this point a 
pivot, let crayon rest on A, and make a sweep 
line from A to G. Having this, then shape the 
front sleeve head from centre of A and B lines to 
D, striking front line one seam above B line as 
shown in Diagram. 

Next apply the measure for sleeve length, 
which we find in Diagram A, 31^ inches. Now 
the measure we have taken from K to Q is llf 
inches. Bring the amount on line B, in front of 
sleeve, and mark off \ inch more than full mea- 
sure to L, 31| inches. The Cutter will find that 
the allowance which we have made for seams is 
i inch — \ inch above line B, and \ inch at L. 
Now mark I in centre of B and D — bring angle 
of square on L, let long arm of square rest on I, 
and in that position draw a line from L to M. 
Mark width of sleeve from L to M, according to 
fa.shion, (say 6 inches), — mark K in centre of D 
and L — square out to N — draw front line of 
sleeve according to fashion. Mark width of 
sleeve from front line to N, (say 9 inches, more 
or less.) Having this, then draw the back line 
t)f .sleeve from A through N to M, as shown in 
Diagram E. 

THE r.\»ER SIDE OF SLEEVE. 

Take the measure as above given for loAver arm 



16 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



scye, 7| inches — bring the amount from D to H. 
Make a mark — and we will find a space between 
H and A, of 1\ inch— take one-half, or | inch, 
and mark this in from D to G, which we 
make the point for front line of under side — now 
apply the measure, 7f inches, again from G to H, 
and draw front and back line for undersleeve by 
these points — take the distance from B to C, de- 
duct one seam, and bring the amount in front be- 
low B line, and square across for bottom line of 
under side. Having this, then shape from H to 
I, to bottom line, to G, making B line the length 
of under side, as shown in Diagram E. 

DIAGRAM F. 

This Diagram sliows liow to cluingH the p^'out 
seam of Sleeve. 

Tlie drafting is in the same manner as in Dia- 
gram E, and when drafted, then marlv out from 
D, the amount which you decide uj^on the sleeve 
seam shall come below Q on front part, (say l^ 
inch), bring the same amount out from L, and 
draw a line down by these marks, as sliown in 



Diagram F. Now, whatever the amount may be 
which we have marked out from D and L, bring 
the same amount in from G and L, and draw your 
line for underside by these points. 

But when the seam is placed outside of D and 
L, be careful and have the goods stretched, on the 
outside of D L, so that it will lay over smoothly 
on upper sleeve. 

l;;g°°The Cutter will remember, that we have 
given two measurements, in the Exjilauation of 
Measurement, by wdiich we may obtain the sleeve 
length. The first measure is as w^e have applied 
in the draft of Diagram E. The second measure, 
as we have stated in the measurement of sleeve, 
is from C3ntre of back to elbow, and then to the 
hand, or full length of sleeve. 

Now, those who wish to adopt this plan apply 
the measure as follows : Measure the width of 
back, from P to N, or C line — bring the amount 
on A, top of sleeve; and from A, extend the tape 
to N, to M, full length of measure, and allow \ 
inch more for seams. All tlie rest is as shown in 
Diagrams E and F. 



^ few ^eii]arks oi] Sleeve 6uttii]i>\ 



No doubt the majority of Cutters will agree on 
one point when we say, that a good-fitting sleeve 
is the ornament to a well-fitting coat. Yes, more 
than this, we may say without hesitation, it is 
the finishing touch of heauty and elegance to the 
garment ; while, on the other hand, a well-fitting 
coat body containing a bad-fitting sleeve is an 
eye-sore to the intelligent Cutter. 

But while the majority of Cutters agree on this 
very important point, it is nevertheless a well 
known fact tluit the sleeve does not receive the 
attention of numy Cutters which it ought to have 
and should have. 

Now some may say, Why should this be so, 
and what reason have you for this '. We answer, 
l^ecause it is sim])]y for this reason : that some 
Cutters look upon the sleeve as a matter of trifle 
and insigniH(-ance. Yes, some have formcMl an 
idea, tluit almost any tiling in the shape of a sleeve 
will do, so long as it hiis the right length, and 
widlh of arm scye. 

But tiiis is the greatest en-or any Cutter can 
ever make — and no doubt some of this class of 
(Jutteis have already paid very dearly for it. 

It is a. well known fact, that Cutters in geneVal 
make the coat body their principal study, espe- 
cially if they have the misfortune of using a .sys- 
tem wliich gives too much cinth in one place, oi' 
wiinkling to another -in all sncli cases tliev will 



try very hard to remedy the evil and avoid the 
bad consequences. But very few of them will 
give their study and attention to the sleeve, or 
even let the thought enter their mind that the 
sleeve might have something to do with the full- 
ness and wrinkling of the coat body. Neverthe- 
less, it is true that in the majority of cases 
where the cutter finds this trouble, the sleeve is 
the very thing that produces it. 

Now, to i:)rove our point and argument, we 
take for instance, the cutter who has taken up 
the fashion of trying on the gannent before it is 
finished, (which we must pronounce a very poor 
policy). He fits on the coat without the sleeve, 
then according to his theory the sleeve will fit, if 
only the coat body will. AVe suppose now that 
lie is so fortunate as to find the coat body all 
- right, it fits neatly around the arm scye, side 
body, and waist — shoulders are nice and square 
— and it is jiionounced perfect fitting. Thecoat 
is then finished, and when tried on again, lo! 
what a change there is in the coat which the ar- 
tist has pronounced perfect fitting. Thesliould- 
eis, which were so nice and square belVne, hang 
down now fiat as a leaf — the side body whicli 
were nic(> and smooth before, has now a surplus 
amount of loose cloth extending across the liack. 
The arm scye in front, which was smootli before, 
he finds now a big wrinkle. Now then, Mr. Ar- 




PLATE, VII 







THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



17 



tist, what is tli3 cau?3 of all these changes ? And 
the answer will be, it is sjioiled by the journey- 
man tailor. Now, we admit that the journejanan 
may have done his share, in not sewing in the 
sleeve as it ought to be — but still, there must be 
some other cause that has brought all these 
changes — and this cause, we say is the sleeve, 
which does not fit in the arm scye. The sleeve 
head is too short, and drags the shoulder down 
and produces the fullness and wrinkling under 
the arm. And if the Cutter has any doubt that 
this be the case when caught in this dilemma, 
just rip out the top sleeve, from back to front 
seam, and this will show you that the shoulder 
will raise up in the same position as they Avere 
when fitted on first, and by this, all the loose 
clotli will be taken away — and furthermore, it 



will show you the amount which the sleeve head 
has to be lengthened to fit in the arm scye — and 
by so doing it will prove that the coat body is 
all right, but the sleeve is not. 

Now I claim tliat my Sleeve System which is 
herein given and explained will, produce a well 
fitting sleeve every time, providing the measiires 
are taken correct, and the drafting is made ac- 
cording to the instruction therein given. It will 
fit the arm scye without dragging on the shoul- 
der. It will produce the sleeve according to the 
form or hang of arm. And furthermore, I claim 
that it is the most simple and time saving sys- 
tem on sleeve cutting in existence; any cutter of 
common talent can draft out a good fitting sleeve 
in less than one minute. 



THE SKIRT SYSTEM, 

PLATE VII. 



Tlie Skirt is also a very important part of the 
coat, which, when in good shape and in good 
hanging position, will add beauty and elegance 
to the garment. It is therefore more worthy of 
study than it generally receives. 

My Skirt System has the most reliable points 



by which, if located according to the plan as 
herein shown, will give in all cases, the correct 
spring in back of plait. It is simple in the way 
of drafting, and reliable in all its various points 
— because the most of these points are taken from 
the body and applied to the draft. 



Diagram G, 

SHOWING THE SKIRT FOR A DOUBLE-BREASTED FROCK COAT. 



Draw a line in front, as from A to B — A to C 
9 inches in all cases. Square in from C to D. 
Now to locate point D : we must saj', this point 
is governed by the fashion, and should be made 
accordingly, if the Skirts are worn very full, the 
amount must be more, and so mce versa. 

For a medium full skirt, we mark in from C to 
D, one inch in all sizes. 

Bring angle of square on A, let short arm rest 
on D, and draw a line on top, as from A to E. 
Now measure the bottom of front, side body and 
lapel, add 1 inch more for fullness, and bring 
the amount from A to F. Having this, then 
shape the top of skirt as shown by dark line, and 
as near as possible to the form of front part, as 
shown in Diagram A. Next measure the width 
of side body at bottom, bring the amount from F 
to G — square down to H. 

Now to find * H, we must place the square on 
side body, as shown in Diagram A, as follows : 
bring angle of square on lower point of side body 
as to 6, let arm rest on edi!,'e of side seam at A 



line, as at 5, and in that i^osition draw a line from 
6 to 10; then, whatever the space may be between 
9 and 10, (say 1^ inch in this case,) bring the a- 
mount from dark line (or actual waist line of skirt) 
from G to H, and make a * ; and we have the 
point which will give the correct spring in back 
of skirt. 

Bring the angle of square on x^oint P, let arm 
rest on * H, and draw a line from F to K. Mark 
down from F to I, one-half breast, 18 inches in 
this case. 

Now i^lace the side body in a joining position 
with top of skirt, as from F to G, and draw a 
curved line in harmony with side body from F 
through I to K, — also draw a corresponding line 
for the plait. 

Having this, then finish the bottom line — meas- 
ure from F to K, length of back skirt, and allow 
^ inch more — in centre of skirt mark | inch more 
than back skirt, and in front as from A to B, 
length of back skirt, and finish the bottom b\' 
these points as shown in Diagram G. 



18 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



jram H. 

SHOWING THE DRAFT OF SKIRT FOR A CUTAWAY FROCK COAT. 



Draw line from A to B— bring the width of 
front and side body at waist seam, from A to C — 
next draw top line as shown in Diagr.or to fancy. 
Mark width of side body from C to E — square by 
A B line from E to F, and extend the line up to 
top of waist line. Now bring the square on side 
body as before stated, and as shown in Diagram 
A. Measure from 9 to 10, (say IJ inches in this 
case) and apply this from top line of skirt to * F. 



let arm rest on * F, and draw a line from C to D — 
bring the side body on top of skirt as before 
stated, and draw a curved line from C down — also 
draw a corresponding line for the plait. Mark 
length of back skirt from C to D — also in front. 
Now bring the front part in a joining position 
with top of skirt, and shapa the front of skirt 
down to Gf. Next draw the bottom line from D 
to G, and finisli the whole as shown in Diagram H, 
and according to fancy or fashion. 



Having this, then place the angle of square on C, 

Diagram I, 

SHOWING THE DRAFT OF A DRESS COAT SKIRT 



The Dress Coat Skirt is drafted in the same 
manner as shown in Diagram H, Avith only one 
exception, and this is, draw top line in front one- 
half inch below A, as shown in Diagram; all the 
rest is as before stated. 

Now when we have all these points, then meas- 
ure out from C to H, | of breast, (more or less), 
according to fashion. Also from D to I, i of 
breast, or fashion. Next mark width of straps 
or belts, at H, (say If inches) at A, (say 1^ inch) — 
Then draw a line from H to I. Having this, then 
commence and finish the skirt by these points as 
shown in Diagram, and according to the fashion 
of the day. 

The Draff of Baek Skirt. 

The Back Skirt we draft direct to the clotii. 

I)raw a line on edge of the cloth, full length of 
coat — mark off length of waist — from that point 
mark If inches to W, (Diagr. A). Now place the 
back on the cloth, let H rest on edge, and AY on If 
inches. Then extend bottom line of waist to 
the cloth — let the back remain in its position, and 
apply the measure for length of coat (say 38 
inches — square out — nieasui'e out on waist line, 
from edge of cloth t<> inside scnni of back, and 



whatever the amount may be, bring this out on 
bottom of skirt. 

Having this jioint, then draw a gentle curved 
line from inside line of back to mark made at 
bottom — also for plait of skirt — and finish the 
rest according to fashion or fancy. 

TJie Draft of Collar. 

The Collar, as shown in Diagram D, is drafted 
as follows : Bring the ruler on front shoulder 
point ; let it rest on point to which the coat shall 
roll in front, and draw a line from down, as 
shown by dotted lines — then bring the width of 
back from shoulder point to 3. From O line 
mark down to 3, (say finch), and draw a line from 
this mark to the shoulder point for crease of col- 
lar — by this line square uj) to 2, and also to 1. 
Mark standing collar, as from 3 tol, 1\ inches — 
from 3 to 2, (say 1^ inches), or fashion, and shape 
the rest as shown in Diagram, and according to 
the fashion of the day. 

Collars which are intended for a short roll, as in 
the single breasted coat. Diagram C, — the point 
from to 8 nuiy be made one inch, and draw line 
for crease of collar by it, But if so, then have top 
and bottom stretched from centre seam to front 
of crease so it will lav over smoothly. 



The Draft of Body Sack, 

PLATE VIII. 



Sack Coats are drafted on the same plan as 
frock coats. 'The measurement is the same, and 
all the constructicm lines also. The only change 
wliich we must make in Sack Coats is in the di- 
\ ision of the amount from E to ]>. 

In Frock Coats we measure from E to B, and 
divide the amount in six equal ])arts and apply 
one pait from B to F. In Sack Coats, howevei', 
we musi divide llie dislaMce, E lo T>, iu four I'ipial 



parts, and apply one part (or ^th)from B to F. 

The reason for doing so is simply this : Sack 
t'oats need a longer back on top, and tlie one- 
fourth provides for this ; otherwise it is the same 
as shown in Frock Coats — and if the drafting is 
can-ied out according to the instructions as here- 
in given, a neat-litting garment will be produced, 
which will give sitisfaction to br)th customer and 
Cutter. 




PLATE, Vm 




\R 



B 






THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



19 



The 3Iea!«iireiueiit. 

The measures which we use iu the explanation 
of this draft are the same as in Diagram A, with 
the exception of length of coat, as follows : 
6^ inches Point of shoulder measure. 

30 " Length of coat. 
19i- " Back balance. 
20| " Front balance. 
3l| " Sleeve length. 
26^ " Arm depth. 

23|^ " Shoulder measure. 
7i " Back waist. 

31 " Shoulder Regulator. 
36 " Breast measure. 

32 " Waist measure. 

DIAGRAM J. 

Draw a line from to W. Square out from A 
to Y. (Notice front and back balance same as in 
frock.) A to B, one-half of shoulder measure, 
llf inches — square up from B — B to D, front 
balance — square out from D to K — A to E — back 
waist measure. 

Then measure from E to B ; divide this in four 
parts, and bring one part (or one-fourth) from B 
to F — F to H, back balance 1^^ inches, — square 
out from H to I — D to K, one-fourth of A and B, 2| 
inches ; from K to 3, one-half of arm depth 13i 
inches, make a sweep ; then the same amount from 
H to 3, and make a sweep also. Square out from 
L through sweep lines to front at V. Next bring 
one-third of A and B, from B line to J — J to C, f 
inche in all cases. Square up from C to S — take 
one-half of B and C, add one seam, and bring this 
from H to I, 2| inches ; then the same amount 
from D to G — square out to U — place the ruler on 
crossing of B, L, H, and mark for N — square out 
from P through N, to M; draw aline fromM to K. 

The next point we now establish is the width 
of back, or shoulder seam, as at 2. Now here I 
must say, this is a matter of fancy, where most of 
Cutters follow their own taste, and which the 
fashion will change also. Therefore I will give a 
guide only, which I find in general practice, 
brings this point about right. Measure the dis- 
tance from L to P lines, and apply one-half from 
N or P line, to 2, and square out. Mark out on 
this line pitch of back, (say f inch, more or less). 
Having this, then apply the measure for length 
of coat, from H to W ; square out from W to 
front. Next decide on point 1, or in other words, 
where you wish to locate the side line of 
back ; make a mark; Also mark width of back 
at bottom, as from W to X, to fancy, (say 6 
inches) ; having these points, then draw a line 
from 1 to X, for side seam of back, according to 
fancy or fashion. Mark in from A to 4, hollow 
of back, (say | inch, more or less), and draw 
centre of back from P, through 4 to bottom. 



Now shape the back from H to I, from I to 2, 
from 2 to 1, as shown in Diagram, and according 
to fancy or fashion. 

Having this, then take one-third of B and C, 
and mark this out from B to R, and apply 

The Shoulder Megiahttor. 

Measure from R, to top of shoulder seam of 
back at line C, bring the amount on R, and mark 
off full measiire, 31 inches, to S, in the same 
manner as in diagram A. Sweep out from S by 
R. Having this, then cut the back out. 

Bring the back on top of front shoidder, and 
finish the shoulder on front part, and ujiper arm 
scye as shown in Diagram B. Next, bring the 
back on side seam as at 1, fasten it with a pin. 
Now apply the shoulder measure from K to Q, 
then around the front arm scye to centre of back, 
6i inches below H, and allow f inch for seams, as 
shown in Diagram B. 

Then draw a line from 1 to L, — mark from 5 
to 6 the amount which you intend to take out 
between back and front. Now this as the ]orac- 
tical Cutter does know, depends entirely on the 
shape which we like to ]produce. If the coat 
shall fit close in back the amount must be more, 
and if it shall be more in a straight form the 
amount must be less. For a medium close fitting 
body Sack, take one-fourth of E to B, in this case 
one inch. Having this, then shafie the lower 
arm scye by the back, from 1 to 3, and draw side 
line of front from 1 through 6 to X as shown in 
Diagram. Bat here we must caution the Cutter: 
do not bring thej)oint of side body below line 1, or 
point of side line on back, otherwise the back will 
be shortened on top. Always leave sjjace for one 
seam between arm scye and side line at this j)oint. 

Now as we have finished all these points, then 
apply the Breast Measure, as in Diagram B, from 
L to T — square up to U — from T to V 2^ inches, 
make a mark. Next bring the Back Waist 
measure 7^ inches, on B, and mark out one-half 
of waist measure, 16 inches to Y. 

Next place the ruler on U and Y and draw a 
line to Z, which we make the point for collar. 
Then mark from U to Z one-sixth of breast and 
^ inch more — bring one-half of the amount from 
Gr to Z 2 and draw a line out. 

Mark out from V. (say 1 inch, more or less,) 
according to the style of front — then shape the 
neck, and draw a line down in front according 
to fancy or fashion, and finish all the rest as 
shown in Diagram. 

Next mark Q, one-fourth of L and M — measure 
upper and lower arm scye ; also from K to Q, as 
shown in frock coat, and draft the sleeve by these 
measures as in Diagr. E, and the draft is finished. 



20 



THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 



iVT 



loUBLE AND |lNGLE-§REASTED |ACK 
PI.ATE IX. 



^ 



iVER mOATS. 



Tl]e Sack Overcoat. 

Sack OverCoats, as shown in this Diagiani, are 
drafted in the same manner as body saclvs, and 
as sho^ni in Diagram J, with only one exception. 

By looking over the Diagram we find all the 
points and letters as in Body Sack. But after 
all, there is one point to which your attention 
must be drawn, and this is from X to 7. 

In Body Sacks we draw the side line of front 
part to X, or back. 

The Over Coat, however, needs more fullness 
at bottom, and therefore we mnst change this 
point according to the length of coat, and also 
according to the fullness which the fashion may 
call for. 

In regard to the measiirenient of Sack and 
Frock Over Coats : The measures shonld be ta- 
ken over the nnder or body coat, in the same 
manner as we have explained in the measurement 
over the vest. By taking the measurement over 
the undercoat we will have the exact amount to 
draft from, without making any allowances what- 
ever, exceptrin those places Avhere we allow for 
seams and making up. I find this the easiest and 
surest way of measuring and drafting the Over 
Coats. 

The Mcjisurcment, 

We suppose, as follows : 

6| inches Point of shoulder measure. 
42 •' Length of Coat. 

20 " Back balance. 

21 " Front balance. 
:}2 " Sleeve length. 
28 " Arm deptli. 

24| " Shoulder measure. 

8 " Back waist measure. 

32 " Shoulder Regulator measure. 

38 " Breast measure. 

33^ " Waist 

DIAGEAM K. 

Diaw a line from O to W — squai-i^ out fi'om A 
to y. (Notice front and back balance.) Now 
bring one-half of shoulder measure, 12f inches, 
from A to B— square up from B— B to D, front 
balance — A to E, back waist^ — B to F, one-fourth 
of E and B— P to H, back balance— D to K, one- 
foui'th of A and 13— K to 3, one-half arm depth, 
make a sweej) — H to 3, same amount make a sweej) 
also. Square out frcmi L, through sweep to front — 
B line to J, one-third of A and B — J to C, | inch. 
Square up from C to S ; mark N by 11, and L B 



line — square out from P, through N to M — draw 
a line from K to M — Jf to 2, (say one-half of L and 
P), more or less — H to I, one-half of B and C, and 
one seam — D to G, same amount — square out to 
U — H to W, length of coat — sqiiare out to front 
— A to 4, (say J inch,) — W to X, width of back, 
(say Q^ inches, more or less) — line 1, to fashion 
or fancy. Now finish the back, from H to I, 
from I to 2 — from 2 to 1, and from 1 through 5 
to X — then finish the centre of back as shown 
in Diagram, and according to fashion. 

Bring one-third of B and C, from B to R. 
Then apply 

The Nhouldcr Regulator. 

Measui'e from R to top of Back Shoulder at 
line C, bring the amount on R, and luark up to 
S full length of measure, 32 inches, and make a 
sweep from S out, same as in Diagram A. Now 
cut the back out. Bring the back on top of front 
shoulder and finish the same as in Diagram B, — 
draw a line for upper arm scye to Q to 3. Then 
bring the back to side seam let line 1, meet, fasten 
the back with a pin — apply the shoulder measure 
from K to Q, then around the arm scye to 3, then 
to centre seam of back 6f inch below H, and allow 
I inch for seams — draw a line from 1, to line L, 
mark from 5 to 6, (say one-fourth of E and B, 
more or less). Now mark spring at bottom, as 
from X to 7 — (say 2^ inches). Then draw the 
side seam of front from 1 to L through 6 to 7 as 
shown in Diagram — shape the lower arm scye as 
in Diagram J. 

Next apply the breast measure, from L to T, as 
before shown. Square up from T to U — T to V, 
2t1- inches — mark from U to Z, one-sixth of breast, 
and ^ inch more — one-half the amount from G 
to Z 2. and draw line out. 

Next, apjjly the waist measure. Bring back 
waist on B, and mark out waist measure, and 1 
inch more to Y. Bring the ruler on U and Y, and 
draw a line to Z, which we make the point for 
collar. Now mark out from Y, for a Single- 
Breasted Coat (say 1\ inches), the same amount 
from Y. Having this, then shape the neck to Z 
from Z, shape the lapel according to the fashion 
of the day, and from this point draw the front line 
through mark at "\', and Y, to bottom. Also shape 
the bottom line, and all the rest as shown in Dia- 
gram K.. 

This Diagram also shows the Double-Breasted 



PLATE, IX 




PLATE, X 




THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



21 



Coat. Mark out from Y, to front, (say 3 inches, 
more or less), the same amount from Y. to front, 
and draw the front line by these marks. Then 
measure in from Y, \ inch less than we have marked 
outside, also the same amount from Y, in, and 
draw a line for the Buttons. 

Tl^e Brock Overcoat. 

Tliisstvle of coat-; isdraftf^d in the saiu':' manner 



as shown in Diagrams A, and B, without any 
change whatever, except the measurement, wliich 
should be taken over the body coat. 

The one-fourth of E, and B, which we have ap- 
plied in Diagram K, from B, to F, is in Sack Coats 
only. Bear this in mind, and no alteration will be 
needed. 



PLATE X, 



SHOWING THE DRAFT OF THE IXVERXE 

AND 

HOW TO PRODUCE THE THREE' 

This style of Over Coats, known as the Inverness 
Cape, have been in demand for quite a number of 
years, and although the fashion has drawn the 
garment out of style, it is still worn by some, and 
will be so for some time to come, because it is the 
most comfortable garment for traveling purposes 
ever gotten up. 

Now this style of Over Coats are generally 
drafted by graduated scales, and the result, no 
doubt, some have experienced. We find that all 
patterns drafted by scales will be above 38 breast, 
a number of sizes too large for the breast for which 
they are intended. The only way to overcome the 
difficulty is to draft out the pattern by actual 
measurement, and in the same manner as we do in 
Fkock and Sack Coats. 

The Measureiiieiif. 

This is the same as in frock and sack coats, and 
should be taken over the under coat, except breast 
and waist, which should be taken over the vest in 
this style of coats. 

We suppose now that the measures are as fol- 
lows : 

44 Inches Length of Coat. 

20 " Back balance. 

21 " Front " 

32 " Sleeve length. 
31 " Cape " 

28 " Arm depth measure. 

24 " Shoulder 

31^ " Shoulder Regulator measure. 

18 " Neck measure. 

36 " Breast 

33 " Waist " 

The Draft of Diagram L. 
Draw a line in centre of back as from to W — 
square out from O to Y— from O to A, front bal- 
ance, 21 inches— square out from A to front line— 
|^~ now from A to C, one-half of shoulder measure, 
-: 12 inches, square C, line up to top— from C to B, 
one-half of A and C, six inches— square B line up 
to D. The distance which we now have from A, 
to B, is 18 inches. 



SfS t'APE, WITH OR WnilOlT i^IEEYES. 

ALSO 

-QITARTER CIRCLE OR CAPE. 

Now take one-fourth of A and C, or 3 inclic^ 
and apply this, from O to I — then from D to J — 
also from D to K. Square these lines as shown in- 
Diagram. Then mark from J to G, one-sixth of 
breast, which is the same amount, in this case, as 
from D to J, 3 inches — square out to Z. Having 
this, then mark F, in centre of O and D — square 
F line down — then E. in centre of D and F, and 
make a mark. 

Now bring the tape measure on B, and mark 
the back balance, 20 inches, uj) to '■•' 1 at F line. 

Next apply the Arm-depth Measure — take one- 
half of the measure, 14 inches, and apply this from 
K, down to centre of B and C lines, and make a 
sweep — then apply the same amount from * 1 at F 
line to centre of B and C, and make a sweep also, 
as shown in Frock Coat Diagram A. 

Now bring the square on centime line of back and 
draw a line out from L, through sweep lines to 
front — mark M, one-fourth of breast (or 4|- inches 
in this case) from line L, and square in to 2. 

Having this, then measure the space between C 
and P lines and mark * in centre at A line, {\\ 
inches from C,)^place the tape on this * and mark 
up back balance, 20 inches, to H, and we have the 
correct length of Back. 

Now square out from H, to I — from this line 
mark up on I, f inch, for spring of back — jilace 
the ruler on mark made by | inch, and draw a line 
down to N — then apply the measure for full length 
of coat — bring the tape on H, let it run down on 
centre line and mark off 44 inches— from this mark 
up to W, one inch, and square out to X. 

Having this, then bring the ruler on E, let it 
rest on the crossing of C M lines, and draw a 
line down to bottom of coat, as at 5. Now bring 
the ruler on 2, let it rest on crossing of A, and E^ 
lines, as at 3, and draw a line from 2, to 4. Then 
shape the back from H to I, from I to 2, as shown 
in Diagram — place the tape on I, at top line, let it 
run to bottom of back, and make a sweep from AY, 



22 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



to 4. Next bring the tape on D, and make a sweep 
from 5 to X, for bottom of front. Mark in from 
Q to P, li inch, make a mark— now measure from 
B to C, and bring one-third of the amount, two 
inches, from B to R, and apply 

The Shoulder Regulator. 

Bring the tape on R, let it run up to P, in a 
straight line, bring the amount on R again, and 
measure up to S, at E line, full measure, 31i inches 
—square S line out by line B— from S to S 2, mark 
the same amount as from Q to P, li inches, and 
square this line in. Mark up from line M to Q, i 
inch, and draw a line to P. Having this, then 
finish the front part, — measure out from on top 
line, one-half of breast, 18 inches— from this point, 
mark out to T, one-fourth of breast, 9 inches, and 
square this line down to bot tom. Now mark from 
T to V, li inch— T to X, at bottom 2 inches in all 
cases and sizes — place the ruler on V and X, and 
di'aw a line from tojj to bottom. 

Next we commence and shape the front — from 
S 2 at E line we draw a gentle curved line for top 
of front shoulder to K line, as shown in Diagram 
— from crossing of J and K, draw a line for neck 
gorge out to Z. Then shape the arm scye, from 
S, at E line to M, to L, and up to P. Having this, 
then mark in from front line | inch to Z, and also 
the same amount in from T, wliich we make the 
point for collar. Now shape the front by Z, and 
all the rest as shown in Diagram L, and cut the 
pattern out — but be careful, and notch front and 
back at A line as at 3, which point must meet 
when the coat is joined. Now this corai^letes the 
coat with sleeves. 

Diagram L 

Skowi/ig the same Drafl, loUliout Sleeves. 
Draft the pattern as before shown with sleeves, 
and when drafted, then mark down from L line 
to 6, one-sixth of breast, 3 inches — mark centre of 
B and E line, at shoulder seam, and draw a line 
down to 6, as shown by -(-lines in Diagram. All 
the rest is as before stated. 

Diagram M. 

Showing How to Drc{ft the Cape for the Inver- 
ness Cape Coat. 
Place the front part of coat on tlie i)attern paper, 
and draw neck and front by the coat. Bring the 
ruler on crossing of J, K, lines, let it rest in centre 
of S, S 2, at C line, and draw a line to Y. Next, 
bring the tape on K, measure down to U, full 
length of Cape, 31 inches — now place the tape 
measure on J, make this point a pivot, and sweep 
from U to Y, and draw a corresponding line from 
U, to front, by a curved ruler, and finish all tlie 
rest as shov/n in Diagram. 



Diagram N, 

Showtag the Draft of the so-called ^•Three- 
Quart er Circle or Cape. 
This style of garments is worn by military 
men, and also by others, over Frock and Sack 
Coats. 

The Draft. 

Draw a line from D to B — square out 
from D, to K, — mark from D to K, one- 
sixth of breast, 3 inches, and draw line down ; 
now take the pattern of the coat, for which 
the Cape is intended, place the back on top line, 
as at K — then bring the front part to back, so tliat 
shoulder seam of coat will rest in a closing posi- 
tion, front shoulder point resting on K line, back 
at top line — B,D, line of coat running parallel with 
B, D, line of cape, and in that position draw a line 
in centre of back by the pattern, as from K to Y 2. 
Shape the neck by the pattern as from K, to Z — • 
and also from Z, d(jwn in front. Having this, then 
take the pattern off — mark down from D to J, 3 
inches in all cases, and make this point a pivot. 
Next mark length of cape from K, to U, (say 31 
inches). Bring the tape on point J, or pivot, and 
sweep from U, to Y 2, or centre of back, as shown 
in Diagi'am. Now draw a corresponding line from 
U to front, as in Inverness Cape, and cut the pat- 
tern out. 

Diagram 0. 

Showing the Draft of Collar. 
Draw a line from 1, to 3, — square up from 1, to 
2, — mark up from 1, to O, li inche.s, and from 
0, to 2, (say 2 inches). Now measure the neck of 
coat, 9 inches — bring 9 inches from 1, to 3, — mark 
width of Collar from 3, to 4, (say 2f inches) more 
or less— mark up in centre of 1, and 3 (say 1 inch) 
— then commence and shape the Collar from 1, to 
mark by 1 inch, to 3 — from O, to 3 — and from 2 to 
4, as shown in Diagram. 

Draftiiig- the Sleeve. 

Measure the arm scye — ^bring | inch more than 
^ of arm scye measure from S, E, line down below 
M, and make this the point for front sleeve seam, 
(as at Q, Diagram A). Also measure from K, to 
this mark, same as in frock or sack — note the 
measures down, and draft the Sleeve in the same 
manner as in frock or feack coats, as shown in Dia- 
gram E, with only one exception, and this is :— 
Measure the distance from M, to point of front 
Sleeve seam, on front part, and whatever the 
amount may be, apply this in the di-aft of Sleeve, 
as from A, to B, Diagram E. 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



23 



THE PATTERN SYSTEM. 



The System, as herein laid down, will be found 
the most simple and reliable method of drafting 
patterns for the Ready-made Trade ever gotten up 
and jjresented to the trade. The difficulty gene- 
rally experienced by the Breast Measure System, 
whereby all sizes above 38 breast will be too large, 
and below 35 too small for the intended breast, is 
herein overcome. 

The principle on which the pattern system is 
based as laid down in the Actual Measurement, 
and the drafting is also illustrated by the same 
Diagrams as therein given and explained. 

In the annexed 



"Cutting- Table of Proportions" 

Avill be found the principal measures for each size 
of breast, which we have to apply for the various 
points of Diagrams. The arrangement of figures 
in this Table are very simple, so that any Cutter 
can use it at once. The first line of figures give 
the breast from 24 to 48 ; the second line of figures 
. the distance from A to B ; the third line the dis- 
tance from B to D ; the fourth line of figures the 
distance from D to L, or bottom of arm scye ; the 
fifth and sixth lines, the length of sleeve for each 
size of breast; and will l)e fully illustrated in the 
next draft. 



Diagram A. 

SHOWING DRAFT OF A 36 SIZE FROCK PATTERN. 



Draw line from O to O — square from A to Y. 
Now apply the measures as given in the Cutting 
Table, ojiposite figure 18, or Breast measure, as 
follows : From A to B, 12 inches, square up to D 
— B to D, 20J inches, and square out to K — D to 
L (or bottom of arm scye), 12^ inches — square from 
L, through mai'k to V, in front, and we have the 
principal lines for the pattern. 

Now mark from D to K, one-fourth of A and B, 3 
inches— measure from B toK, 20| inches, and bring 
this from B to H, for length of Back. Mark from 
B line to J, one-third of A and B, 4 inches — J to 
C, f inch in all sizes — square up from C to g — 
applj^ one-half of B and C (2f inches), from H to 
I, also from D to G, and squaie out to U — place 
the ruler on crossing of L and B lines, let it rest 
on H, and mark for N. Square out from P, tlirougli 
N to M — draw a line from M to K — mark width of 
back as from 1 and 2— from A to AV, one-eighth of A 
and H (more or less, according to fashion) — square 
out from W to X — mark width of back from A to 
4 — bring f inch above I, for spring of back. Now 
shape the back, from H to I, from I to 2, from 2 to 
1, and from 1 through 4, to bottom, according to 
fashion or fancy. Having this, then mark up from 
L on C line, one-fourth of breast {A^ inches), and 
from that point one-eighth of breast to S — bring 
the tape on M, and sweep out from S. 

Now, here I must say, that wdienever the shoul- 
der seam of back is drawn higher up than ilh of 
breast at line C, then deduct the Jimount from ^ 



of breast, and bring point S so much farther down 
—and so nice versa. Next bring the tape on 
point 1, and sweep from bottom line of back out 
to 6 — apply i inch less than one- fourth of A and 
B, (2f inches), from 4 to 5— mark | inch in 
all sizes between back and side body, at line L. 
Having this, then cut the back out and finish 
the side body by these points, 5 and f inches, in 
the same manner as shown in actual measurement, 
Diagram B. Then draw a line for width of side 
body, as from line L, to 7 to 9,— mark ^ inch in 
all sizes from 7 to 8, and shape side line of front, 
through 8 to bottom. Now finish the bottom line 
of side body as shown in actual measurement, — 
also the front shoulder and arm scye, as before 
shown in Diagram B. Mark Q one-fourth of L 
and P, from line L, up— apply the breast measure 
from L to T— square up to U— T to V, 2i inches in 
all sizes — square down from V to bottom — mark 
^ inch out from this line to Y— U to Z, one- sixth 
of breast and | inch more— G to Z 2 one-half the 
amount. Having this, tlien finisli the whole as 
shown in actual measurement in Diagrams A and 
B. 

Then measure upper and lower arm scye as 
before shown, and draft the sleeve by these mea- ■ 
sures as in Diagrs. E andF. Apply the measures 
as given in the "Cutting Table," from centre of 
back to elbow, 20 inches, to O, or full length of 
sleeve, 32^ inches— allow \ inch for seams ;' and 
square by L and I foi- bottom. 



24 



THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 



Diagram J. 

SHOWING THE DRAFT OF SACK- COAT FATTERNS. 



In giving the necessary instruction for the draft 
of sack coats, we will take the 40-inch breast, and 
by so doing we show the working of the Catting 
Table more fully. 

The Di'aft. 

Draw line from O to W— square out from A to 
Y— from A to B, 13|- inches— square up to D— from 
B to D, 21| inches— from D to L, Vd\ inches- 
square out from L, through mark to V in fronts 
D to K, one-fourth of A and B, 3^ inches. Now 
measure from B to K, (22 inches), add f inch in 
dll sizes of Sack coats, and bring the full amount 
(22f inches in this case), from B to H— square out 
to I— from B to J, one-third of A and B, (4| inches). 
J to C, I inch— square up from C to 8. Then take 
one-half of B and C (2J- inches), add one seam and 
apply this from H to I, also from D to G, and 
square out to U. Now mark N, by H and cross- 
ing of L and B— square out from P, through N to 
M— draw a line from M to K. Next mark width 
of back or shoulder drop. (See explanation of 
actual measurement). Take one-half of L and P, 
(more or less), from N to 2— mark out from 2, for 



pitch of back (say f inch) — also mark f inch for 
spring of back above I. Now shape the back, from 
H to I, from I to 2, from 2 to 1. Next mark full 
length of coat from H to W, (say 82 inches), square 
out from W to front — mark width of back from W 
to X, (say 6| inches). Having this, then shape the 
side seam of back, from 1 to X, to fancy or fashion. 

Next bring one-fourth of breast (5 inches) from 
L up on line C — from this point one-eighth of 
breast {2^ inches), to S. 

Now, whatever the shoulder seam of back may 
be above the mark of ^ the breast, deduct the 
amount from S, and bring this point so much 
lower down. Sweep out from S, by M. Apply 
the breast measure from L to T, square up to U — 
T to V, 2^ inches — square from V to Y — draw a 
line by U and Y, to Z — U to Z one-sixth of breast 
and I inch more — G to Z 2, one-half the amount. 
Now finish the front shoulder, arm scye, and neck, 
as shown in actual measurement — then shape the 
front to fashion or fancy. Next mark from /) 
to 6 (say 1\ inch), (see actual measurement), and 
shape the side of front part from 1 through 6, to 
X, and all the rest as before shown in Diagram J. 



Diagram K. 

THE DRAFT OF OVER-COATS. 



The Drafting in thisDiagram is the same as in 
Diagram J, or l)ody sack, and does not need any 
further explanation. 

The only instructions whicli are needed we find 
in the following points : 

Fir at: The Over Coat does need a longer back 
on top, as from L to H, than the Body Sack. The 
extra allowance which we make in under sack is | 
inch ; in over sack we make the allowance, above 
B and K, ^ inch. 

Second: The Over Coat needs more fullness on 



bottom, therefore we must make the allowance as 
shown in actual measurement, from X to 7. 

Third: By drafting an Over Coat by the same 
breast as in Diagram J, 4() inches, \ve will have a 
pattei-n which will Jit a man of 38 breast. 

This shows that tlie Over Coat does need two 
inches more in width than the under coat, to tit 
the same person. All the rest of drafting is as 
shown in Diagram J, and as explained in actual 
measurement. 



Diagram L- 

THE DRAFT OF 1N\KHNESS CAPE OVERCOAT. 



Draw a line IVc.in () to \V -sqiiaiv out from O 
to V— now mark (for a 3(; lu-eastj from O to A, 2(H 
inches. Square out from A to front— A to C, 12 
inches, square u]) to top lino— C to B, one-half of 
A and C, (\ inches, square up to D— D to L, |- inch 
more in all sizes than the amount given in the 
"Cutting Table," 13 incln\s. Now take one-fourth 
of A and C (3 inches), and 'n-ing this from O to I, 
also from I) to ,), and liom ,1 to G, also from 1) to 
K — square all lliese lines— mark F, in centre of O 
and D— E, in centre of F and I) 1) lo T, one lialf 
breast (!) inches) T to \'. II inch in all sizes 



mark M, one-fourth of breast from L — square in 
to 2. Now mark one-third of C and B, (2 inches) 
from C, out, and niak(> a mark — from this point 
measui'e up to Iv, (21f inches), and bring the 
amount from mark to H, length of back— square 
out, mark | inch al)ove this line for spring of 
back— from G to S 2, one-third of G, and D. 
Having all these points, tlien hnish the draft liy 
these i)oints, as shown in actual measurement. 

The Cape is drafted in the same nr.umer as be 
fore shown, also the Sleeve and Collai'. aii'l does 
not nciMJ (uilliei- ex[ilanaf ion. 



THE GUTTER AND GUIDE. 



25 



fuTTING f ABLE OF f ROPORTIONS 



Drafting Coat and Vest Patterns 

FOE THE 

READY-MADE TRADE. 



One-half Breast Meas- 
ure. 


pq 

o 

s 
p 

■V-l 

o 

a 

C3 

s 


o 

p 


h4 

o 
p 

V 

Pi 

CO 


Lejigth of Sleeve from 
centre of Back to El- 
bow. 


Full length of Sleeve 
from centre of Back 
to 0,* Diagram E. 


1— i 

i 
>> 

a; 


INCHES. 


INCHES. 


INCHES. 


INCHES. 


INCHES. 


INCHES. 


12 
13 
14 
W 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 


8i 

H 

m 
111 

12 

.121 

m 

131 
14i 
14f 


14 

15i 
16^ 

17f 

19f 
20| 
21i 
211 
22i 
221 
23f 
24 


9i 
9| 
lOi 
Hi 
111 
121 
12f 

13f 
14i 
141 


14 
15 
15f 
16i 

i7i 

19i 

20 

20f 

21i 

211 

22i 

22f 

23 


21i 
23i 
25 

26f 
29 

m 

32i 
33i 
34i 

341 
3of 
3of 
36i 



PLATE, XI 




V K 






THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



27 



THE VEST SYSTE 



The System as herein given, is on the same plan 
as the Coat System, and will provide for all the 
'oarious forms of tlie Tiuman body which the 
Cutter may be called on to measure and draft for. 

The Measurement is the same as exjilained in 
the measurement of Coats^except that we must 
add length of Collar, full length of Vest in 
front, and also full length at hip — which will he 



fully shown in the measurement below, and also 
in the draft of Diagram P. 

Now, with these few lines of introduction and 
explanation of measurement, the Author advises 
all those who intend to study and practice the 
neAv principles, to follow out the instructions as 
herein given, and if you thus do, a trial will be 
sufficient to show that the System will do all which 
we liave above stated, and you will become a 
hearty indorser of this valuable System. 



PLATE XI, 



The Measiireiiieiit. 



The measures, as we have before stated, are 
taken in the same manner as in Coats, and sup- 
pose that they are as follows for a single-breasted 
Vest : 19^ inches Back Balance. 

20i " Front Balance. 

20i " Armdepth. 

23^ '' Shoulder measure. 
7|- " Back Waist measure. 

31 " Shoulder Regulator. 

14 " Length of Collar. 

26* " Full length of Vest. 

231 " Full length at hip. 

36 " Breast. 

31 " AVaist. 

DIAGRAM P. 

The Draft of a Siiigle-Breasted Test. 

Draw line O, to O — square out from A, to Y — 
now notice front and back balance, same as in 
Coat. (See Explanation of Shoulder Measiire, 
page 11). Now take one-half of shoulder measure 
(llf inches) and Itring this from A, to B — from B, 
to C, one inch in all sizes — square up from C to D 
— apply front balance from C, to D (20* inches), 
and square out to U. Now apply back waist 
measure from A to E — then measure from E to B, 
divide this in foiir parts, and bi-ingone part froniA 
to F, (one inch). Nowapjily l)ack waist measure 
again from F to (I, and make a mark. Bring the 
tape measure on G, and apply back lialance 19^ 
inches, with \ inch added for seams, from G to H 
— square out to I. Having this, then take the 
distance from A to B, divide the amount in four 
equal parts, and apply one part, {21 inches,) from 
H to I — then from 1) to J — also from D to K. 
Now apply the arm depth measure, take one-half 
(13:^ inches) and l)ring this from K to P, make a 
sweep line — then from H to P, and make a sweep 
line also. Bring the square on centre line of 
back, and draw a line from L through sweep at 
P, to V, in the same manner as Coat Diagram A. 
Having this line, then mark up from line L to N, 
one-fourth of A and B — mark | inch up from I, 
for spring of back — place the ruler on this mark, 
and point N, and draw shoulder line of back. 

The next line we must hud is line Isi : Take 
one-half of A and B, (5^ inches), and apiily this 



from line C, to M, and square up — diaw a line 
from L and C to K. Now, having established all 
these points, we go on and apply 

"The Hhonlder Regulator." 

Place the tape on G, let it run up in a direct line 
to R, top of back shoulder seam — bring the a- 
mount on B, and then up in a direct line to S, 
full length of measure, 31 inches, and make a 
mark— place the rule on S, let it rest on crossing 
of J K lines, and draw a line oiit. 

Having all these points and lines, we then com- 
mence and finish the Back. Draw a line from H 
to L, through F, to bottom, for centre of hack — 
then from 11 to I, or mark for spring of liack — 
finish the shoulder seam to R — then from R, tin- 
ish the arm scye to P, or side line of back 
and front, wliich line may be drawn to 
fancy (say centre of Mand C)— mark out from G, 
11 inch for seams and ease. Now commence, and 
draw side line from P, through mark at waist, to 
Z, at bottom — as shown in Diagram. 

Next linish the Front : Bring one-half of 
breast measure from L to T— from T to V, 2 
inches in all cases — square up from T to U, from 
U draw a line to V, by which line we form the 
front line cf vests which shall button up very 
high. Having this, then apply the waist measure 
—bring tlie Inick waist measure on B, mark out 
to Y, one-half of waist, IS^ inches, and allow for 
one seam in front. 

Then apply the measure for length of vest :— 
take the tape, measure from D to J— place the 
amount on front shoulder point, and measure to 
V, length of collar, 14 inches— then to W, full 
length of vest, 26* inches, and allow for seams- 
then to X, lengtlfof hip, 23^ inches, and allow 
for seams also" Having all these points, then 
shape the front— draw a line from V, through Y, 
to bottom, also a corresponding line for lap of 
button side— shape the point for collar, and draw 
a line for neck, from K line to V. Next draw a 
a line from P, through B, to X— also from X to 
"\Y— then shape bottom line of back, and cut the 
back out. Bi-ing the back on top of front shoul- 
der ; let point I rest on K J line, and in that po- 
sition, finish the front arm scye, by the 
back— then shape the front shoulder from arm 
scye to K line,— and all the rest as shown in Dia- 
uraiii P, and according to the fashion of the day. 



28 



THE CUTTER AND GUIDE. 



PLATE XII. 



DIAGRAM Q. 

Showing' the different ««tyle!^ of Test. 

In this Diai^Tam we show the di'aft of the dif- 
ferent styles of Vests, — the Single Breasted, to 
button close np to the neck, — the Double Breast- 
ed to button way np, — and also the Double 
Breasted with long rolling collar. 

Diagram Q is drafted in the same manner as 
shown in Diagram P ; and whatever the style 
may be, which the Cutter may wish to draft, the 
change must be in front, as from V, Y and W. 

We will show these changes by three Diagrams: 

DIAGRAM P. 

Single Breasted Vest, to button dose np to neck. 

We suppose now, that we have made the draft 
as in Diagram P, with the exception that the 
front line, from V to W, has to be drawn. 

Now commence and mark, from D to Q, one- 
third of breast, 6 inches — square out to Z. Hav- 
ing this, then shape the neck to front line at Z — 
from this point draw front line to V, to Y, to W 
and we have the side for tlie button holes ; then 
draw a line outside for the button side, or lap, as 



in Diagram P. Mark in from front line at Z, to 
point of collar (say f inch) and the draft is fin- 
ished. 

DIAGRAM S. 

S/ion-iiif/ (Itc Diajt of I lie Double Breasted Vest, to 
button close vp to the neck. 
This style of ^"est is drafted as shown in Dia- 
gram R. Draw front line, from Z to W. Now 
draft the Lapel. Mark on top, (say 2 inches), 
— at V line (say 2^ inches) — at Y line (say 2 
inches, more or less) — and shape the Lapel, as 
shown in Diagram, according to fashion or fancy. 



DIAGRAM T. 



with 



Shoicliirj (he Draft of the Double Breasted Vest, 
long rolling Collar. 

Mark length of Collar to measure or fancy — 
mai'k out from Y (say 2i inches) — at liottom (say 
If inch, more or less) — and draw a line liy these 
marks — then draw a line doAvn for neck — finish 
the bottom to fashion. 

Next draw a line for Buttons, ^ inch less than 
we have marked outside of Y and W, and finish 
the rest as shown in Diagram. 



The Pattern System, 

DIAGRAM P. 

SHOWING THE DRAFT OF A 36-SIZE A^EST PATTERN. 



Draw line O to O — square out from A to Y. (See 
Cutting jTable of Proportions, page 25). Mark 
from A to B 12 inches — B to C, one inch in all 
sizes — square up to D — fnmi B to D '20\ inches — 
square out to U — D to L, 12^ inches — square out 
from L, through mark to V — apply one-half of 
A and B, from line C, to M — square iip from M. 
Now mark at waist, from A to F, i inch — from F. 
to G, or side line of Back, one-half breast, 9 
inches. From C, measure up to D, (20A- inches), 
and bring tlie amount from G to H, allow one 
seam above H, and square out to I' Then take 
one-fourth of A and B, 3 inches, and apply this 
from H to I — from D to K — D to J — also from 
line L, to N. Mark ux> from I, | inches for 
spring of back — place the ruler on this mark, and 
N, and draw line for shoulder s(»am of back. 
Now take oue-lialf of line jj, and D. ((!J- inches), 
add \ inch in all cases to this ^, and bring it from 
M to S— place the ruler on L and K, and draw a 
line np, also from S to K, J, line. 

Now a^iply the breast measure from L to T — 
from T to \\ 2 inches. Square up from T to I' — 
from U diaw a line to V. IMark lengtli of front. 
This of course is i-eguhited by fasiiioii, and must 
be made accordingly. For a guide, we will say, 
bring ^d of breast (6 inches), from Y to W — and 



one-sixth, or 3 inches, from B to X, and draw the 
bottom line by these ixdnts — mai'k out from B, 
^ inch less than one-half breast, (8^ inches). 

Having now all these points, then commence 
and finish the draft Sliape centre of back from 
H to L, tluough F to bottom. Then from R to P 
— from P, through G, to Z. Now cut the back 
out and bring it on top of front shoulder, and 
finish as before stated in actual measurement. 
Draw arm scye to P — from P, finish side line to 
B, to X. Then draw line for bottom of back as 
shown in the Diagram. Next finish the neck, 
from J K lines to point of collar, then from A', 
through Y, to \V — and all the rest as shown in 
actual measurement. 

In regard to the draft of the diftVrent styles of 
Vests, as in Diagrams Q, R, S and T, this is done 
in the same manner as liefore stated, and does 
not need furtlier exi)lanation. 

Having shown this draft of a 30 size, we will 
say that, ]»r()viding tlie Cutter will use " Tlw 
Cutting Table of Proportions,''^ and follow the 
instruction as heiein given, he will produce a set 
of Patterns whicli are equal to any tiiat he may 
f)rder from pattern (>stablishments. 

And i>\- lliis the N'est S\stem is ended. 



PLATE, XII 




MJ3iMil-^-.«~, ^.^..-,^»;:,«^^^i'' 



IBRftRY OF CONGRESS 



014 082 750 




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